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Today, modern corporate organizations, driven by competition pressure connection, finding and retaining talent, globalization, financial expectations, technological innovation, energy trends, diverse workforces, environmental Salgsudvikling sustainability, corporate responsibility, the face of the Internet, etc. The bottom line, that maintaining the status quo or do slightly better is no formula for success. Change management and adaptation is always necessary to claim in a position to set direction, to identify priorities, to manage complexity and deliver exceptional results.
John to Kotter, Konosuke Matshushita Professor of Leadership at Harvard, that "Most U.S. corporations are managed by and under. "In essence, require the current leadership positions in management and leadership skills with a different focus. The higher we go up the career ladder, the greater the demand for leadership. This requires the fast changing environment we are faced with Salgsudvikling more leadership from more people. To cope with these forces good mastery of leadership and management skills, is to arrange for and manage any organization effectively is essential. Therefore, the great development of leadership skills to institutionalize. "Institutionalizing a leadership-centered culture - where the business rewards those who successfully develop leaders - is the ultimate act of leadership." (Kotter 51-65, 1999).
Leadership differs from Third New International Dictionary defines Management
Webster leader as "a person who plays by the force of example and leadership qualities of a leader, exercises a controlling influence, or has a following in every field of activity." The strength of leadership comes from the enrollment of heads on a common cause or vision, and achieve the release of intrinsic motivation to deliver exceptional results. This means that anyone in an organization can be a leader, whether or not that individual formally marked as such. In fact, informal leaders is extremely important for the effectiveness of most organizations.
Allen Scherr and Michael Jensen (2-4) in its recent Barbados Group Working Paper, that "a leader is offered a common man with both a commitment to a delivery result, their implementation would be remarkable and visionary, given the current circumstances -. and the integrity to execute these commitments in order to achieve the desired results "an important idea of ââthis definition is that" integrity "in the sense of leadership includes honoring your word - and that means either you keep your word or acknowledge that they can not without, however, and cleaning up any mess that was for those who caused this word to be kept counting. "(Erhard et al. 36).
Kotter defines management as about dealing with complexity, planning and budgeting, organization and staffing, controlling and problem solving. For this purpose, he claimed that management sees the establishment of goals and targets and establishing detailed plans for achieving goals, allocating resources, establishing organizational structure, delegating authority and responsibility to monitor results vs. plan , identifying deviations from plan and the planning and organization solutions (51-65, 1999). Consequently, what great managers have in common is an appreciation of their strengths as well as an understanding of their limitations. Bearing in mind that performance depends on how well they find out the pressure and the priorities of their particular task, they have a course that works for them. According to Sternberg, "Finding this individual path to success is the hallmark of leadership tasks is intelligence." (314-315). LINEBREAKL INEBREAK
Management is fundamentally about minimizing risks and maximizing adherence to the plan, and predictability. In comparison, generates leadership copes with the unknown, of dreams and vision, the breakthrough performance. Accordingly, what one person sees as possible to be a pipe dream to others. The topic of leadership is one where the results are produced by greater risk and uncertainty as to what are usually accompanied in the field of management as acceptable. A scientific jewel of the Renaissance was Machiavelli's The Prince (1513/1962). Machiavelli's thesis is as good today as it was in 1513. He explained that "there is nothing more difficult to take in hand to carry out more dangerous or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in introducing a new order of things."
Obviously, both leadership and management is crucial for a well functioning organization. It is important to emphasize and understand Kotter's incisive statement about the tension between leadership and management: "... even more radically different leadership and management to produce in terms of their primary function, the first useful changes, the second-level results . create something to keep working efficiently, this does not mean that the management are not associated with change,. in tandem with effective leadership, it can lead to a more orderly change process Nor does it mean that the leadership will never be associated with Regulations ;. the contrary, in tandem with effective management, effective leadership to help process the produce changes necessary to bring about a chaotic situation under control "(Kotter 7, 1990).. This conflict can be useful, however, it is not a trivial exercise. The right balance is both short-and long-term success of any major business.
Leadership it comes to being comfortable with change, and the understanding that the status quo against progress in most cases, it does. Every quarter and every month there is a change - things are in constant motion. While others may not realize it to accept leaders. Knowing that change is inevitable, the true leader seeks positive change for a specific purpose and for the better. Kotter defines leadership as consisting of the following three elements: 1) Establishment direction, 2) aligning people, motivating and 3) and to inspire. This is a great definition, but the paper by Allan Scherr and Michael Jensen, adds further insight into the area of ââleadership by agreeing with Kotter's work, but with two additional elements: (Scherr, Jensen 4 "Communication Breakdown, breakdown, and administration." ).
Legendary leader, Jack Welch noted in a WSJ editorial (2004) that after 30 years leading to the leaders he knows what to look and act like. His trial evaluated four key features (each one beginning with an E, a happy coincidence): 1) large positive energy, 2) ability to Energize others, 3), Edge, or the courage to make tough yes-or-no decisions to make, and 4) follow up to run the job done. He concluded his judgment with a remark about the integrity and intelligence than the general attributes necessary to assemble the profile of a strong leader type.
As we are complete, there is no lack of leadership definitions. The many dimensions, has thrown into the guide, can the issue is not unique. Nevertheless, there is sufficient similarity between the definitions to find common ground. Guide has been designed as the exercise of influence, as a function of personality, as a mode of persuasion, as a special behaviors as a means to achieve visions for the future, as an approach to induce commitment, as a creative mind set as an achievement instrument, and as a mixture of such ideas.
Situational theories Leadership
The the inability of researchers to identify conclusively all the dimensions of leadership resulted in the development of four popular situational leadership theories. These theories suggest that the most effective leadership style to situational variables, especially the characteristics of the group and the type of task.
Hersey Blanchard and developed a "Situational Leadership" model-dependent, that harmonized with different combinations of task behavior and relationship behavior maturity of the followers. Depending on the willingness of subordinates to the appropriate leadership style is first told to sell, then, will participate, and finally explored for highly sophisticated followers, delegating (Vecchio 334-350). LINEBREAKL INEBREAK
The most intense situational leadership theory is Fred Fiedler 'contingency theory "the leadership. Fiedler used the LPC scale to the leader of the focus on either the task or the person measure. The most appropriate leadership style was then determined first of three situational variables: whether the relationship between the leader and the members were good or poor, whether the task was structured or unstructured, and whether the power position of the leader was strong or weak. If these three situational variables created an extremely favorable or extremely unfavorable situation, was the most effective leadership style a task-oriented (low LPC) leader. However, it was a leader with a high interest in interpersonal relationships (high LPC) is more effective in situations where there were intermediate levels of profitability (Ayman et al. 351-377).
The "Path Goal" is another model of situational leadership theory. This theory is derived from expectancy theory suggests that effective leaders need to clarify the objective way and increase the attractiveness to target followers. Four different styles of leadership are suggested in the model: directive, supportive, achievement-oriented society and participative leadership styles. The most appropriate way depends on two types of situational factors: the characteristics of the followers and the properties of the environment. Three of the most important features are the followers of locus of control, authoritarianism, and personal skills. The three environmental factors are the type of task, the formal system of authority within the organization, and the group norms and dynamics (House et al. 259-273). LINEBREAKL INEBREAK
Vroom Yetton and the "normative decision-making" model is a situational leadership theory, as it should identify the appropriate style guide for use in decision making. The three styles of leadership are autocratic decision-making and advisory group decision making. To determine the choice titles, which type is best suited to include such questions as whether the leader has sufficient information to make the decision alone whether the subjects the objectives of the organization will accept that subordinates will accept the decision, if they do not participate in it do not, and whether the decision is a controversial solution (Vroom 278) to produce.
Although most of the literature on leadership emphasizes the influence of the leader of the group to study the influence of the group leader can not be overlooked. The relationship between the leader and the group implies a mutual influence. Groups have the ability, the behavior of their leaders by responding selectively to influence specific behaviors leaders. The influence of a leader can be limited by several external factors, such as the organizational framework, group norms and individual skills and abilities. Other variables to neutralize been found or replaced, for the influence of a leader, as the skills and abilities of followers, and the nature of the task itself.
Managing Breakdowns for Breakthrough Performance
It is difficult to predict with certainty that the implementation will occur by visions of the future , without the occurrence of some setbacks. Margins are situations where the team recognizes that the current plan will not work. Contrary to general belief of the people, can failure be turned into the openings behind the driving force. "Necessity is the mother of invention": This concept is captured well with the saying. Failures are opportunities for a committed team, to find alternative solutions, this is done only by identifying the problem and to work as a team. Building on the concept of collapse, there are two essential elements for each failure: 1) the engagement and 2) the recognition and acknowledgment that given the current course and speed, the commitment will not be realized.
First, if there is no commitment there never will be a failure, because in the absence of a commitment, whatever happens, is acceptable. So if there is no buy-in and commitment are unclear or uncertain, the existence of a breakdown, lack of urgency, and perhaps not even be visible to some or all of the people involved. Secondly, to the extent that can accurately predict the outcome of this course are problems identified earlier, and thus increase the likelihood that problems will be solved. On the other hand, if we can not see that the forecast is failure of the present approach, is no breakdown or be noticed if it is, it will probably be too late to overcome the obstacles (Scherr, Allen 13-14 ).
The act of management and communication will help the existence of margins in order to expedite the timely discovery of new solutions and breakthroughs. If everyone is committed to the same global vision, then a breakdown in another area of ââthe global vision is prevented from reality, is a breakdown for all. If a committed and motivated team, a breakdown of faces, they re-create their commitment instead of giving up. The renewal of the commitment of the people moves the point of view and often enables them to opportunities and solutions, see the previously invisible.
The quality movement offers methodologies (eg Lean Six Sigma, ISO 9001, TQM, CMMI, ACE, etc.) to assist in the identification of some kind of breakdown, by what is not broke, and to find ways to help drive continuous improvement . Observed Bringing in a new perspective on what is "business as usual" can help margins, which may have been invisible otherwise.
Expectations Spot + Commitment is the dialect of the Successful Leadership
Expectations and commitment play a central role in the effectiveness of leadership . It is known that leaders who usually expect to get more, more (eg, Likert, 1961, 1967, McGregor 1960). By inviting each relevant to make a personal commitment to achieving the vision of a leader is working in practice towards a self-fulfilling prophecy. To surpass the most important implication of the creation of the Pygmalion effect expected by the players involved is high performance.
Eden (184) points toward travel, that "a leader who wants to be a positive Pygmalion should point out, the subordinates, that they have a lot of untapped potential, and in general they have to believe that they can do more. "Business schools teach many variation on this theme in order to develop leadership qualities, ie, expectation and self-efficacy training, immunization against the Golem effect, avoidance Challenging negative stereotypes, delete the recording, setting goals and tasks, etc.
Culture of an organization is closely associated with the realization of expectations and self-fulfilling prophecy involved. Form (189-190) has researched how culture affects the effectiveness of an organization. In his own words, "Productivity is a cultural phenomenon par excellence, both on the small workgroup level and within the organization." To this end, myth making a promising way of shaping organizational culture. Managing myths is a good thing for those who influence the culture "... the unique and essential function of leadership is the manipulation of the culture." (Ticket 317). LINEBREAKL INEBREAK
Think on the promotion of self-fulfilling prophecy by the widespread belief that "nothing is impossible" or that "Will is the measure of power" compared to the Golem effect of myths such as "Our products lack quality is awakened "or" We are working on Murphy's Law and the Peter Principle. " Therefore, the symbolic expression of a high performance culture in the improvement of expectations are important.
Business as usual is often the enemy of the breakthrough performance and effective leadership. If things are very bad, the need for change is pushed in our faces. If a situation is intolerable, it seems that measures the right thing to do, and most are willing to work hard at it. But when things are good, well hey, that's all right. The problem with business as usual is that it leads to complacency and mediocrity, and over time, such a lack of leadership can be expensive and damaging to the organization. Napoleon offered his opinion about the importance of leadership in his famous quip that he would rather have an army of rabbits by a lion than an army of lions led by a rabbit. Much like in professional sports, the need for performance in today's competitive environment dictates the concept of "do it now, or it is not long." Line Break Line Break Line Break Line Break Cited
Kotter Works, John. On what leaders really do. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.
Erhard et al. "Integrity: A positive model that fits the normative phenomena of morality, ethics and legality." Negotiations, Organizations and Markets (NOM) Working Paper No. 06-11, and Barbados Group Working Paper No. 03-06. SSRN, 2007.
Kotter, John. A force for change: How leadership is managed from, different. New York: The Free Press, 1990.
Scherr, Allen, Michael Jensen. "A new model for leadership." Negotiations, Organizations and Markets (NOM) Working Paper No. 06-10, and Barbados Group Working Paper No. 02-06. SSRN, 2006.
Ayman et al. "The contingency plan model of leadership effectiveness: The level of analysis." Leadership. Ed. Robert P. Vecchio. Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2002.
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